Drug violations are criminalized in both federal and state criminal justice codes, which typically list controlled substances that may not be used except under a doctor’s care.
DWI/DUI means “driving while intoxicated” or “driving while under the influence” and refers to the crime of drunk driving. This crime usually includes driving while abusing drugs and/or alcohol. In Virginia the operation of other kinds of motorized vehicles, such as boats and scooters, under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol is charged as DWI/DUI.
Felonies are crimes punishable by over one year in prison. Most felonies are also punishable by a fine, but the critical determination for considering a crime a felony is the prison sentence.
Fraud is not a separate crime, but is an important part of property crimes such as embezzlement and false pretenses. There is always some manner of deceit in the element of fraud.
Juvenile Crimes are typically called delinquent acts and handled in a different court system than adult crime. The major purpose of the juvenile system is to rehabilitate the offender. Punitive sentences are disfavored in the juvenile system. Juvenile offenders today are rehabilitated, and many sentences require counseling or other family intervention. Juvenile court jurisdiction typically ends when a person turns eighteen or becomes legally emancipated.
Misdemeanors are crimes with a punishment of less than one year in prison. Many crimes, such as theft, have degrees of seriousness with the most serious being felonies and the less serious being misdemeanors. Procedures used in misdemeanor prosecution may be abbreviated.
Parole and Probation
Parole and Probation are used in the sentencing phase of the criminal-justice system. Parole refers to the condition of supervised release that occurs after an offender has spent time in prison. Probation is a sentence imposed instead of prison and is usually subject to terms and conditions designed to make the offender a law-abiding citizen.
Prosecution refers to the government’s case against the lawbreaker. A prosecutor – the lawyer presenting the government’s case – has complete discretion to decide whether to bring a charge against an alleged offender and must prove all charges beyond a reasonable doubt.
Sex Offenses include much more than the common-law crime of rape, which was limited to unlawful sexual intercourse by a man against a woman through the use of force or the immediate threat of force. Most states prohibit lesser invasions, such as unwanted touching, as well as permit prosecution of spouses for sexual assault. In addition, sex offenses include crimes that are defined based on the status of the victim.
Traffic Violations may be crimes or may be classified as violations and not considered part of the criminal law. Where they are crimes, they are typically considered the lowest level of misdemeanor and are generally only punished by a fine.